The project represents a follow-up of the highly successful Lao IRRI Rice Research and Training project (1990-2007). With a focus on rain-fed lowland rice production systems, the former Lao IRRI project contributed to the achievement of self sufficiency in rice production in Lao PDR, thanks to an almost 70% increase in production. Since 2005, one of the project’s components was focusing on improving the upland rice production system. Much more research and investments are, however, required to achieve higher yielding and sustainable (rice) production systems in the Northern Uplands of Lao PDR. This project therefore focuses on these upland production systems.